Mapping of clinical management resources for snakebites and other animal envenomings in the Brazilian Amazon

Timothy P. Beck, Anna Tupetz, Altair Seabra Farias, Alexandre Silva-Neto, Thiago Rocha, Emily R. Smith, Felipe Murta, Flavio Santos Dourado, Deugles Cardoso, Tatyana A. Ramos, André Sachett, Thiago Serrão Pinto, Manuela Berto Pucca, Vanderson Sampaio, Flavia Ramos, João Nickenig Vissoci, Jacqueline Sachett, Fan Hui Wen, Catherine A. Staton, Charles J. GerardoWuelton Monteiro*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Snakebite envenomings (SBEs) and other envenomings triggered by venomous animals (VAEs) represent a significant disease burden in Brazil, with 29,152 SBEs reported in 2021 alone with nearly half of those occurring in the remote Brazilian Amazon. In 2021, Brazil recorded 240,294 envenomings from snakes, scorpions, spiders, and caterpillars. Therefore, there is an unequal distribution of SBEs with high morbidity and mortality in the Brazilian Amazon. The severity of SBEs increases when patients require more than 6 h to access antivenom treatment, a common issue for the rural and indigenous populations. Understanding currently available resources and practices in Amazon remote areas of Brazil can serve to inform future interventions and guide health care policies. This study aims to develop a resource map of existing healthcare resources for the Brazilian Amazon's clinical management of VAEs with emphasis in SBEs, which will aid future strategic interventions. Data collection included a literature review, secondary data collected by government departments and organizational records, GIS mapping activities, and expert input. Our framework was guided by the three levels of healthcare service ecosystem analysis (macro, meso, and micro). Our resource map lays out a comprehensive overview of antivenom access, the distribution landscape, differences in patient transportation, and barriers to access healthcare that face populations in the Brazilian Amazon.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100137
JournalToxicon: X
StatePublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Access to care
  • Community health
  • Neglected tropical diseases
  • Resource map
  • Snakebite envenoming


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