Introduction. The source of cells that participate in wound repair directly affects outcome. The extracellular matrix (ECM) and other acellular biomaterials have been used as therapeutic scaffolds for cell attachment and proliferation and as templates for tissue repair. The ECM consists of structural and functional proteins that influence cell attachment, gene expression patterns, and the differentiation of cells. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine if the composition of acellular matrix scaffolds affects the recruitment of bone marrow-derived cellular elements that populate the scaffolds in vivo. Methods. Scaffolds composed of porcine tissue ECM, purified Type I collagen, poly(L)lactic coglycolic acid (PLGA), or a mixture of porcine ECM and PLGA were implanted into subcutaneous pouches on the dorsum of mice. The origin of cells that populated the matrices was determined by first performing bone marrow transplantation to convert the marrow of glucose phosphate isomerase 1b (Gpi-1 b) mice to cells expressing glucose phosphate isomerase 1a (Gpi-1 a). Results. A significant increase in Gpi-1 a expressing cells was present in sites implanted with the porcine ECM compared to sites implanted with either Type I collagen or PLGA. Use of recipient mice transplanted with marrow cells that expressed β-galactosidase confirmed that the majority of cells that populated and remodeled the naturally occurring porcine ECM were marrow derived. Addition of porcine ECM to the PLGA scaffold caused a significant increase in the number of marrow-derived cells that became part of the remodeled implant site. Conclusion. The composition of bioscaffolds affects the cellular recruitment pattern during tissue repair. ECM scaffolds facilitate the recruitment of marrow-derived cells into sites of remodeling.