Small‐intestinal submucosa (SIS) has been shown to induce tissue remodeling in vivo when used as a vascular graft. The present study investigated the physical and mechanical properties of remodeled aortic grafts derived from xenogeneic SIS material. Eight infrarenal aortic grafts were implanted in mongrel dogs. The grafts were explanted at 1 or 2 months and tested for compliance and hoop mechanical properties. The morphologic changes within the grafts were also characterized. The remodeling process produced graft structures which were significantly stronger than both the normal artery (P = .012) and the original SIS graft (P = .0001), and the compliance of these structures was one third that of normal artery and similar to the original SIS grafts. The remodeled grafts were > 10 times the thickness of the implanted SIS. Immunohistochemical analysis of remodeled tissues suggest that the SIS material was degraded and resorbed over time. The remodeling process transformed a material which was physically and mechanically quite different from normal aorta into a blood conduit which had the physical and mechanical properties needed to function in this mammalian arterial system. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.