Mechanical ventilation enhances extrapulmonary sepsis-induced lung injury: Role of WISP1-αvβ5 integrin pathway in TLR4-mediated inflammation and injury

Xibing Ding, Yao Tong, Shuqing Jin, Zhixia Chen, Tunliang Li, Timothy R. Billiar, Bruce R. Pitt, Quan Li*, Li Ming Zhang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Background: High tidal volume ventilation of healthy lungs or exacerbation of existing acute lung injury (ALI) by more moderate mechanical ventilation (MTV) produces ventilator-induced lung injury. It is less clear whether extrapulmonary sepsis sensitizes the lung to MTV. Methods: We used a two-hit model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed 12 h later by MTV (10 ml/kg; 6 h) to determine whether otherwise noninjurious MTV enhances CLP-induced ALI by contrasting wildtype and TLR4-/- mice with respect to: alveolar-capillary permeability, histopathology and intrapulmonary levels of WNT-inducible secreted protein 1 (WISP1) and integrin β5; plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1) and intrapulmonary neutrophil infiltration; and other inflammatory signaling via intrapulmonary activation of JNK, p38 and ERK. A separate cohort of mice was pretreated with intratracheal neutralizing antibodies to WISP1, integrin β5 or IgG as control and the presented phenotyping repeated in a two-hit model; there were 10 mice per group in these first three experiments. Also, isolated peritoneal macrophages (PM) from wildtype and TLR4-/-, MyD88-/- and TRIF-/- mice were used to identify a WISP1-TLR4-integrin β5 pathway; and the requisite role of integrin β5 in WISP1-induced cytokine and chemokine production in LPS-primed PM was examined by siRNA treatment. Results: MTV, that in itself did not cause ALI, exacerbated increases in alveolar-capillary permeability, histopathologic scoring and indices of pulmonary inflammation in mice that previously underwent CLP; the effects of this two-hit model were abrogated in TLR4-/- mice. Attendant with these findings was a significant increase in intrapulmonary WISP1 and integrin β5 in the two-hit model. Anti-WISP1 or anti-integrin β5 antibodies partially inhibited the two-hit phenotype. In PM, activation of TLR4 led to an increase in integrin β5 expression that was MyD88 and NF-κB dependent. Recombinant WISP1 increased LPS-induced cytokine release in PM that was inhibited by silencing either TLR4 or integrin β5. Conclusions: These data show for the first time that otherwise noninjurious mechanical ventilation can exacerbate ALI due to extrapulmonary sepsis underscoring a potential interactive contribution of common events (sepsis and mechanical ventilation) in critical care, and that a WISP1-TLR4-integrin β5 pathway contributes to this phenomenon.

Original languageEnglish
Article number302
JournalCritical Care
Issue number1
StatePublished - 16 Nov 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Acute lung injury
  • Integrin
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • Mechanical ventilation
  • Peritoneal macrophages
  • Sepsis
  • Toll-like receptor 4
  • WISP1


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