Mixed-effect models to assess consistency and reliability across multiple evaluations

Tzu Cheg Kao*, Yvonne Sparling, James Rochon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The issue of consistency and reliability arises frequently in applied clinical trials, and there is a considerable amount of literature on this topic. For a continuous random variable, we describe a process to assess whether the mean and variance are the same from one evaluation to the other and we derive the intraclass correlation (ICC) for evaluating consistency in the distributions of paired data. Mixed-effects linear models are applied, and these procedures are illustrated using dietary recall data from the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS). The SAS program code for performing the statistical analysis is provided. The models can be generalized to account for more design factors and other applicable covariates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)539-548
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Consistency
  • Intraclass correlation
  • Mixed models
  • Repeated measures
  • Reproducibility


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