Monitoring the physical and insecticidal durability of the long-lasting insecticidal net DawaPlus® 2.0 in three States in Nigeria

Emmanuel Obi, Festus Okoh, Sean Blaufuss, Bolanle Olapeju, Joel Akilah, Okefu Oyale Okoko, Abidemi Okechukwu, Mark Maire, Kehinda Popoola, Muhammad Abdullahi Yahaya, Chigozie Jesse Uneke, Samson Awolola, Olivier Pigeon, Stella Babalola, Hannah Koenker, Albert Kilian*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Following guidance from the US President's Malaria Initiative, durability monitoring of DawaPlus® 2.0 brand of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distributed during the 2015/16 mass campaign was set up in three ecologically different states: Zamfara, Ebonyi and Oyo. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of representative samples of households from each location, recruited at baseline, 1 to 6 months after the mass campaign. All campaign nets in the households were labelled and followed up over a period of 36 months in Zamfara and Ebonyi and 24 months in Oyo. Primary outcome was the "proportion of nets surviving in serviceable condition" based on attrition and integrity measures and the median survival in years. The outcome for insecticidal durability was determined by bio-assay from sub-samples of campaign nets. Results: A total of 439 households (98% of target) and 1096 campaign nets (106%) were included in the study. Definite outcomes could be determined for 92% of the cohort nets in Zamfara, 88% in Ebonyi and 75% in Oyo. All-cause attrition was highest in Oyo with 47% no longer present after 24 months, 53% in Ebonyi and 28% in Zamfara after 36 months. Overall only 1% of all campaign nets were used for other purposes. Estimated survival in serviceable condition of the campaign nets was 80% in Zamfara, 55% in Ebonyi (36 months follow-up) and 75% in Oyo (24 months follow-up) corresponding to median survival of 5.3, 3.3, 3.2 years, respectively. Factors associated with better survival were exposure to social messaging combined with a positive net-care attitude and only adult users. Failing to fold the net when hanging and having children under 5 years of age in the household negatively impacted net survival. Insecticidal effectiveness testing at final survey showed knock-down rates of 50-69%, but 24-h mortality above 95% resulting in 100% optimal performance in Ebonyi and Oyo and 97% in Zamfara. Conclusions: Results confirm the strong influence of net-use environment and behavioural factors in the physical survival of the same LLIN brand, which can increase the time until 50% of nets are no longer serviceable by up to 2 years.

Original languageEnglish
Article number124
JournalMalaria Journal
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 30 Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • LLIN durability
  • Monitoring
  • Nigeria

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