Multitargeted low-dose GLAD combination chemoprevention: A novel and promising approach to combat colon carcinogenesis

Altaf Mohammed, Naveena B. Janakiram, Misty Brewer, Krishna Vedala, Vernon E. Steele, Chinthalapally V. Rao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Preclinical studies have shown that gefitinib, licofelone, atorvastatin, and α-difluoromethylornithine (GLAD) are promising colon cancer chemopreventive agents. Because low-dose combination regimens can offer potential additive or synergistic effects without toxicity, GLAD combination was tested for toxicity and chemopreventive efficacy for suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)Min/+ mice. Six-week-old wild-type and APCMin/+ mice were fed modified American Institute of Nutrition 76A diets with or without GLAD (25 + 50 + 50 + 500 ppm) for 14 weeks. Dietary GLAD caused no signs of toxicity based on organ pathology and liver enzyme profiles. GLAD feeding strongly inhibited (80-83%, P <.0001) total intestinal tumor multiplicity and size in APCMin/+ mice (means ± SEM tumors for control vs GLAD were 67.1 ± 5.4 vs 11.3 ± 1.1 in males and 72.3 ± 8.9 vs 14.5 ± 2.8 in females). Mice fed GLAD had >95% fewer polyps with sizes of >2 mm compared with control mice and showed 75% and 85% inhibition of colonic tumors in males and females, respectively. Molecular analyses of polyps suggested that GLAD exerts efficacy by inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, decreasing β-catenin and caveolin-1 levels, increasing caspase-3 cleavage and p21, and modulating expression profile of inflammatory cytokines. These observations demonstrate that GLAD, a novel cocktail of chemopreventive agents at very low doses, suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis in APCMin/+ mice with no toxicity. This novel strategy to prevent colorectal cancer is an important step in developing agents with high efficacy without unwanted side effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)481-490
Number of pages10
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2013
Externally publishedYes


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