Background Despite the growing availability of multifunctional prosthetic hands, users' control and overall functional abilities with these hands remain limited. The combination of pattern recognition control and targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) surgery, an innovative technique where amputated nerves are transferred to reinnervate new muscle targets in the residual limb, has been used to improve prosthesis control of individuals with more proximal upper limb amputations (i.e., shoulder disarticulation and transhumeral amputation). Objective The goal of this study was to determine if prosthesis hand grasp control improves following transradial TMR surgery. Methods Eight participants were trained to use a multi-articulating hand prosthesis under myoelectric pattern recognition control. All participated in home usage trials pre- and post-TMR surgery. Upper limb outcome measures were collected following each home trial. Results Three outcome measures (Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and Box and Blocks Test) improved 9-12 months post-TMR surgery compared with pre-surgery measures. The Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control and Activities Measure for Upper Limb Amputees outcome measures had no difference pre- and post-surgery. An offline electromyography analysis showed a decrease in grip classification error post-TMR surgery compared to pre-TMR surgery. Additionally, a majority of subjects noted qualitative improvements in their residual limb and phantom limb sensations post-TMR. Conclusions The potential for TMR surgery to result in more repeatable muscle contractions, possibly due to the reduction in pain levels and/or changes to phantom limb sensations, may increase functional use of many of the clinically available dexterous prosthetic hands.