Naturally derived and synthetic scaffolds for skeletal muscle reconstruction

Matthew T. Wolf, Christopher L. Dearth, Sonya B. Sonnenberg, Elizabeth G. Loboa, Stephen F. Badylak*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

175 Scopus citations


Skeletal muscle tissue has an inherent capacity for regeneration following injury. However, severe trauma, such as volumetric muscle loss, overwhelms these natural muscle repair mechanisms prompting the search for a tissue engineering/regenerative medicine approach to promote functional skeletal muscle restoration. A desirable approach involves a bioscaffold that simultaneously acts as an inductive microenvironment and as a cell/drug delivery vehicle to encourage muscle ingrowth. Both biologically active, naturally derived materials (such as extracellular matrix) and carefully engineered synthetic polymers have been developed to provide such a muscle regenerative environment. Next generation naturally derived/synthetic "hybrid materials" would combine the advantageous properties of these materials to create an optimal platform for cell/drug delivery and possess inherent bioactive properties. Advances in scaffolds using muscle tissue engineering are reviewed herein.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-221
Number of pages14
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Electrospinning
  • Extracellular matrix (ECM)
  • Hybrid materials
  • Hydrogel
  • Mesh
  • Volumetric muscle loss (VML)


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