Neutrophil accumulation and damage to the gastric mucosa in resuscitated hemorrhagic shock is independent of inducible nitric oxide synthase

Katsuhiko Tsukada, Laurel A. Omert, John Menezes, Brian G. Harbrecht, Masayuki Miyagishima, Christian Hierholzer, Timothy R. Billiar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) appear to play important roles in the liver and in lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock. Their precise roles in hemorrhagic shock-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML), however, are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of neutropenia on hemorrhagic shock-induced AGML. We also examined the roles of iNOS in PMN infiltration into the mucosa and AGML during hemorrhagic shock by using L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, a potent inhibitor of iNOS, and by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Remarkable gastric mucosal damage occurs after hemorrhagic shock. PMN depletion caused by Vinblastine pretreatment significantly attenuates this AGML. Although low-dose L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (50 μg/kg, iNOS inhibition) has no effect on AGML, high-dose L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (250 μg/kg, iNOS + endothelial NOS inhibition) significantly exacerbates AGML without increasing PMN infiltration into the mucosa. The mRNA expression of iNOS in the stomach during hemorrhagic shock cannot be detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We conclude that PMN play a pivotal role in hemorrhagic shock-induced AGML, iNOS does not regulate PMN infiltration into the mucosa, and endothelial NOS provides important protection against AGML during hemorrhagic shock.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-324
Number of pages6
JournalShock
Volume11
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1999
Externally publishedYes

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