Normative Ranges for, and Interrater Reliability of, Rotational Vestibular and Balance Tests in U.S. Military Service Members and Veterans

Daniel S. Talian*, Megan M. Eitel, Danielle J. Zion, Stefanie E. Kuchinsky, Louis M. French, Tracey A. Brickell, Sara M. Lippa, Rael T. Lange, Douglas S. Brungart

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: The objectives of this study were to (a) describe normative ranges— expressed as reference intervals (RIs)—for vestibular and balance function tests in a cohort of Service Members and Veterans (SMVs) and (b) to describe the interrater reliability of these tests. Method: As part of the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC)/Traumatic Brain Injury Center of Excellence 15-year Longitudinal Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Study, participants completed the following: vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression, visual-vestibular enhancement, subjective visual vertical, subjective visual horizontal, sinusoidal harmonic acceleration, the computerized rotational head impulse test (crHIT), and the sensory organization test. RIs were calculated using nonparametric methods and interrater reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients between three audiologists who independently reviewed and cleaned the data. Results: Reference populations for each outcome measure comprised 40 to 72 individuals, 19 to 61 years of age, who served either as noninjured controls (NIC) or injured controls (IC) in the 15-year study; none had a history of TBI or blast exposure. A subset of 15 SMVs from the NIC, IC, and TBI groups were included in the interrater reliability calculations. RIs are reported for 27 outcome measures from the seven rotational vestibular and balance tests. Interrater reli[1]ability was considered excellent for all tests except the crHIT, which was found to have good interrater reliability. Conclusion: This study provides clinicians and scientists with important information regarding normative ranges and interrater reliability for rotational vestibular and balance tests in SMVs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)694-705
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Audiology
Issue number3S
StatePublished - Nov 2023
Externally publishedYes


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