Many veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom are now returning to the United States after potential exposure to leishmaniasis. In the past year, large numbers of leishmaniasis cases of a magnitude not encountered in the United States since World War II have challenged clinicians in both the military and the civilian sectors. Many Reserve and National Guard troops were deployed to Iraq and are now back in their communities. Hundreds of leishmaniasis cases, which were managed by a few practitioners initially, permitted further appreciation of the epidemiology and diagnostic and treatment options for Old World leishmaniasis. We describe the current situation, with on-the-ground experience, complimented by a literature review, and we provide a practical list of options for the clinician likely to encounter this parasitic infection in the coming months and years.