Optimizing whole blood storage: hemostatic function of 35-day stored product in CPD, CP2D, and CPDA-1 anticoagulants

Michael Adam Meledeo*, Grantham C. Peltier, Colby S. McIntosh, James A. Bynum, Andrew P. Cap

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Transitioning from whole blood (WB) to components developed from efforts to maximize donor yield. Components are advantageous for specific derangements, but treating hemorrhage with components requires significantly more volume to provide similar effects to WB. Because storage lesion and waste remain problematic, this study examined hemostatic function of refrigerated WB stored for 35 days in anticoagulants citrate–phosphate-dextrose-adenosine (CPDA-1), citrate–phosphate-dextrose (CPD), or citrate–phosphate-double dextrose (CP2D). METHODS: Refrigerated WB units from healthy donors were sampled over 35 days. Global hemostatic parameters were measured by thromboelastometry, thrombogram, platelet aggregometry, and platelet adhesion to collagen under shear conditions. The effects of transfusion filtration and mixing 35-day stored product with fresh WB were evaluated. RESULTS: Countable platelets declined as aggregation clusters appeared in microscopy. While gross platelet agonist-induced aggregation declined over time, normalization revealed aggregation responses in remaining platelets. Peak thrombin generation increased over time. Clot strength diminished over storage in tissue factor–activated samples (normalized by filtration of aggregates). Functional fibrinogen responses remained consistent throughout. Filtration was necessary to maintain consistent platelet adhesion to collagen beyond collection day. Few differences were observed between anticoagulants, and stored/fresh mixing studies normalized coagulation parameters. CONCLUSIONS: WB is easier to collect, store, and transfuse. WB provides platelets, an oft-neglected, critical resuscitation component, but their individual numbers decline as aggregates appear, resulting in diminished coagulation response. WB has better performance in these assays when examined at earlier time points, but expirations designated to specific anticoagulants appear arbitrary for hemostatic functionality, as little changes beyond 21 days regardless of anticoagulant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1549-1559
Number of pages11
Issue numberS2
StatePublished - Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes


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