Objective: To compare oral contraceptive (OC) use during a 12-month period among women aged 18-39 years in the U.S. military and the general U.S. population using data from the Military Health System Management Analysis and Reporting Tool (M2) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), respectively. Methods: OC use was age adjusted to the 2000U.S. Census population. Comparisons between the military (n=83,181) and the general population (unweighted n=360), as well as between the military branches, were conducted overall and stratified by age, race/ethnicity, and marital status. Results: OC use was higher in the military (34%) than in the general population (29%, p<0.05). This difference increased with age and was most pronounced among Hispanics (military, 32.2%; general population, 19.8%). Within the military, OC use was highest in the Air Force (39%) and lowest in the Army (30%, p<0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggest that OC use differs between the military and the general population and within the military by service branch. Further studies that assess whether OC use is related to variations in health outcomes between these two populations and within the military are warranted.