Outcomes by time-to-OR for penetrating abdominal trauma patients

Braylee Grisel, Alexander Gordee, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Zachary Ginsberg, Suresh Agarwal, Krista Haines*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Time-To-OR is a critical process measure for trauma performance. However, this measure has not consistently demonstrated improvement in outcome. Study design: Using TQIP, we identified facilities by 75th percentile time-to-OR to categorize slow, average, and fast hospitals. Using a GEE model, we calculated odds of mortality for all penetrating abdominal trauma patients, firearm injuries only, and patients with major complication by facility speed. We additionally estimated odds of mortality at the patient level. Results: Odds of mortality for patients at slow facilities was 1.095; 95% CI: 0.746, 1.608; p = 0.64 compared to average. Fast facility OR = 0.941; 95% CI: 0.780, 1.133; p = 0.52. At the patient-level each additional minute of time-to-OR was associated with 1.5% decreased odds of in-hospital mortality (OR 0.985; 95% CI:0.981, 0.989; p < 0.001). For firearm-only patients, facility speed was not associated with odds of in-hospital mortality (p-value = 0.61). Person-level time-to-OR was associated with 1.8% decreased odds of in-hospital mortality (OR 0.982; 95% CI: 0.977, 0.987; p < 0.001) with each additional minute of time-to-OR. Similarly, failure-to-rescue analysis showed no difference in in-hospital mortality at the patient level (p = 0.62) and 0.4% decreased odds of in-hospital mortality with each additional minute of time-to-OR at the patient level (OR 0.996; 95% CI: 0.993, 0.999; p = 0.004). Conclusion: Despite the use of time-to-OR as a metric of trauma performance, there is little evidence for improvement in mortality or complication rate with improved time-to-OR at the facility or patient level. Performance metrics for trauma should be developed that more appropriately approximate patient outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)144-151
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Emergency Medicine
StatePublished - May 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Abdominal
  • Firearm
  • Penetrating trauma
  • Performance metrics
  • Quality improvement
  • Time-to-OR


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