Objective: To report the case of a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) syndrome with concomitant parathyroid carcinoma and a classic MEN1 germline mutation. Methods: We present the clinical findings, laboratory results, imaging studies, and surgical histopathologic features in a woman with MEN 1 syndrome and concomitant parathyroid carcinoma. We also review the literature regarding patients with similar clinical entities and the use of adjuvant radiotherapy for parathyroid carcinoma. Results: A 53-year-old woman presented with nausea and severe primary hyperparathyroidism. Computed tomography revealed parathyroid masses, shown later to be bilateral parathyroid carcinomas and adenomas. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a pituitary macroadenoma, and gastrinomas were confirmed by computed tomography and a secretin stimulation test. She was successfully treated with total thyroidectomy, subtotal parathyroidectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy. Genetic analysis revealed a classic MEN1 germline mutation. Conclusion: This report describes a patient with parathyroid carcinoma occurring in conjunction with MEN 1, further characterizing this rare condition. In contrast to previously described patients, our patient is the first with a classic MEN1 germline mutation, confirming that parathyroid cancer can occur in association with classic MEN 1 genetics.