Romidepsin (depsipeptide or FK228) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, one of a new class of agents active in T-cell lymphoma. A phase 2 trial was conducted in cutaneous (CTCL) and peripheral (PTCL) T-cell lymphoma. Major and durable responses in CTCL supported the approval of romidepsin for CTCL. Forty-seven patients with PTCL of various subtypes including PTCL NOS, angioimmunoblastic, ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma were enrolled. All patients had received prior therapy with a median of 3 previous treatments (range 1-11); 18 (38%) had undergone stem-cell transplant. All patients were evaluated for toxicity; 2 patients discovered to be ineligible were excluded from response assessment. Common toxicities were nausea, fatigue, and transient thrombocytopenia and granulocytopenia. Complete responses were observed in 8 and partial responses in 9 of 45 patients, for an overall response rate of 38% (95% confidence interval 24%-53%). The median duration of overall response was 8.9 months (range 2-74). Responses were observed in various subtypes, with 6 responses among the 18 patients with prior stem-cell transplant. The histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin has single agent clinical activity associated with durable responses in patients with relapsed PTCL. This study has been registered at clinical-trials. gov as NCT00007345.