Purpose: To investigate the toxicity profile and establish an optimal dosing schedule of zotiraciclib with temozolomide in patients with recurrent high-grade astrocytoma. Patients and Methods: This two-stage phase I trial determined theMTDof zotiraciclib combined with either dose-dense (Arm1) or metronomic (Arm2) temozolomide using a Bayesian Optimal Interval design; then a randomized cohort expansion compared the progression-free survival rate at 4 months (PFS4) of the two arms for an efficient determination of a temozolomide schedule to combine with zotiraciclib at MTD. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomic profiling were included. Patient-reported outcome was evaluated by longitudinal symptom burden. Results: Fifty-three patients were enrolled. Dose-limiting toxicities were neutropenia, diarrhea, elevated liver enzymes, and fatigue. MTD of zotiraciclib was 250 mg in both arms and thus selected for the cohort expansion. Dose-dense temozolomide plus zotiraciclib (PSF4 40%) compared favorably with metronomic temozolomide (PFS4 25%). Symptom burden worsened at cycle 2 but stabilized by cycle 4 in both arms. A significant decrease in absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil reactive oxygen species production occurred 12-24 hours after an oral dose of zotiraciclib but both recovered by 72 hours. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacogenomic analyses revealed that the CYP1A2_5347T>C (rs2470890) polymorphism was associated with higher AUCinf value. Conclusions: Zotiraciclib combined with temozolomide is safe in patients with recurrent high-grade astrocytomas. Zotiraciclibinduced neutropenia can be profound but mostly transient, warranting close monitoring rather than treatment discontinuation. Once validated, polymorphisms predicting drug metabolism may allow personalized dosing of zotiraciclib.