Phase II trial of carboxyamidotriazole in patients with relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer

Mahrukh M. Hussain, Herbert Kotz, Lori Minasian, Ahalya Premkumar, Gisele Sarosy, Eddie Reed, Suoping Zhai, Seth M. Steinberg, Miranda Raggio, Vyta Kulpa Oliver, William D. Figg, Elise C. Kohn*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


Purpose: Carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) is a cytostatic inhibitor of nonvoltage-operated calcium channels and calcium channel-mediated signaling pathways. It inhibits angiogenesis, tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. We hypothesized that CAI would promote disease stabilization lasting ≥ 6 months in patients with relapsed ovarian cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, good end-organ function, measurable disease, and three or fewer prior regimens were eligible. Oral CAI was given daily using a pharmacokinetic-dosing approach to maintain plasma concentrations between 2 and 4 μg/mL. Radiographic imaging to assess response was performed every 8 weeks. Positive outcome included stabilization or improvement of disease lasting ≥ 6 months. Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 were measured. Results: Thirty-six patients were assessable for primary end point analysis, and 38 were assessable for toxicity. Forty-four percent of patients had three prior regimens, more than 50% had four or more disease sites, and 48% had liver metastases. Thirty-three patients reached the targeted concentration range during the first cycle. Eleven patients (31%) attained the ≥ 6-month outcome end point, with one partial response (8 months) and three minor responses (8, 12+, and 13 months). Median time to progression was 3.6 months (range, 1.6 to 13.3 months). CAI was well tolerated, with mostly grade 1 to 2 toxicity. Grade 3 events included fatigue (5%), vomiting (2%), neutropenic fever (2%), and neutropenia (2%). There were no grade 4 adverse events. No associations between VEGF, IL-8, and MMP-2 with CAI concentration or clinical outcome were observed. Conclusion: CAI is a potential agent for additional study in the stabilization of relapsed ovarian cancer. Given a limited toxicity profile, it may have utility as a maintenance therapeutic agent for this disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4356-4363
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number23
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2003
Externally publishedYes


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