Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Soluble Glycoprotein 120 Association With Correlates of Immune Dysfunction and Inflammation in Antiretroviral Therapy–Treated Individuals With Undetectable Viremia

on behalf of the Canadian HIV and Aging Cohort Study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Chronic inflammation persists in some people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during antiretroviral therapy and is associated with premature aging. The glycoprotein 120 (gp120) subunit of HIV-1 envelope sheds and can be detected in plasma, showing immunomodulatory properties even in the absence of detectable viremia. We evaluated whether plasma soluble gp120 (sgp120) and a family of gp120-specific anti–cluster A antibodies, linked to CD4 depletion in vitro, contribute to chronic inflammation, immune dysfunction, and subclinical cardiovascular disease in participants of the Canadian HIV and Aging Cohort Study with undetectable viremia. Methods. Cross-sectional assessment of sgp120 and anti–cluster A antibodies was performed in 386 individuals from the cohort. Their association with proinflammatory cytokines and subclinical coronary artery disease was assessed using linear regression models. Results. High levels of sgp120 and anti–cluster A antibodies were inversely correlated with CD4+ T cell count and CD4/CD8 ratio. The presence of sgp120 was associated with increased levels of interleukin 6. In participants with detectable atherosclerotic plaque and detectable sgp120, anti–cluster A antibodies and their combination with sgp120 levels correlated positively with the total volume of atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions. This study showed that sgp120 may act as a pan toxin causing immune dysfunction and sustained inflammation in a subset of people living with HIV, contributing to the development of premature comorbid conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)763-774
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume229
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Mar 2024
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • HIV-1
  • anti–cluster A antibodies
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • chronic inflammation
  • soluble gp120

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