Plasmodium vivax polymorphs and Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins in Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) from Belize, Central America

Nicole L. Achee*, Caroline T. Korves, Michael J. Bangs, Eliska Rejmankova, Michele Lege, Dan Curtin, Hilbert Lenares, Yvette Alonzo, Richard G. Andre, Donald R. Roberts

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Eight species of Anopheles mosquitoes from indoor/outdoor human landing collections in Belize, Central America, were examined for human Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 14 of 9,104 females tested were positive from general surveys throughout Belize and three of 11,966 were positive from a longitudinal study in Caledonia, northern Belize. ELISA results, using pooled head-thorax preparations and species-specific monoclonal antibodies directed against the circumsporozoite proteins of Plasmodium falciparum and two Plasmodium vivax polymorphs (210 and VK247), found four species reactive: Anopheles vestitipennis (3 pools), Anopheles darlingi (2 pools), Anopheles albimanus (10 pools), and Anopheles gabaldoni (2 pools). The minimum field infection rates (MFIR) for combined Plasmodium species from the general survey were 0.282% for An. vestitipennis, 0.271% for An. darlingi, 0.126% for An. albimanus, and 0.395% for An. gabaldoni. MFIRs for combined Plasmodium species from the longitudinal study in the village of Caledonia were 0.018% for both An. vestitipennis and An. albimanus and 1.66% for An. gabaldoni. Positive CSP pools were collected from the Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, and Toledo political districts. No CSP positive pools were detected from collections in the Belize District. The study provides valuable information on the spatial distribution and species type of Plasmodium positive mosquitoes. This information, in combination with other vector data, suggest that An. vestitipennis and An. darlingi are commonly involved in malaria transmission. Additionally, these species appear to be much more efficient vectors than An. albimanus in Belize. Journal of Vector Ecology 25(2): 203-211. 2000.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-211
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Vector Ecology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Anopheles mosquitoes
  • Belize
  • Circumsporozoite protein ELIZA
  • Plasmodium falciparum
  • Plasmodium vivax


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