PMEPA1 gene isoforms: A potential biomarker and therapeutic target in prostate cancer

Shashwat Sharad*, Albert Dobi, Shiv Srivastava, Alagarsamy Srinivasan, Hua Li

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

The identification of prostate transmembrane protein androgen induced 1 (PMEPA1), an androgen responsive gene, came initially from the studies of androgen regulatory gene networks in prostate cancer. It was soon followed by the documentation of the expression and functional analysis of transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein (TMEPAI)/PMEPA1 in other solid tumors including renal, colon, breast, lung, and ovarian cancers. Further elucidation of PMEPA1 gene expression and sequence analysis revealed the presence of five isoforms with distinct extracellular domains (isoforms a, b, c, d, and e). Notably, the predicted amino acid sequences of PMEPA1 isoforms show differences at the N-termini, a conserved membrane spanning and cytoplasmic domains. PMEPA1 serves as an essential regulator of multiple signaling pathways including androgen and TGF-β signaling in solid tumors. Structure-function studies indicate that specific motifs present in the cytoplasmic domain (PY, SIM, SH3, and WW binding domains) are utilized to mediate isoform-specific functions through interactions with other proteins. The understanding of the “division of labor” paradigm exhibited by PMEPA1 isoforms further expands our knowledge of gene’s multiple functions in tumorigenesis. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent advances in understanding of PMEPA1 isoform-specific functions and their associations with prostate cancer progression, highlighting the potentials as biomarker and therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1221
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalBiomolecules
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Androgen receptor
  • Isoform
  • NEDD4
  • PMEPA1
  • TGF-β
  • TMEPAI

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