Pneumonia associated with near-drowning

Peter T. Ender*, Matthew J. Dolan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

129 Scopus citations


Drowning and near-drowning can abruptly devastate the lives of both the affected victims and their families. In addition to the complications directly caused by the submersion, several indirect causes of morbidity exist. Infection is one of the complications associated with near-drowning, and pneumonia is the most severe of these infectious complications. The risk factors, microbiological causes, diagnostic approach, and appropriate therapy for pneumonia associated with near-drowning are not well described in the literature. Herein, we review the epidemiology and pathophysiology associated with near-drowning, discuss the potentIal mechanisms of infection, and describe the likely risk factors for pneumonia related to near-drowning. We also detail the microbiological causes of this entity and provide important clinical and epidemiological information associated with specific pathogens. Finally, we summarize an appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approach to pneumonia associated with near-drowning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)896-907
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


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