The popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is increasingly recognized as a cause of arterial insufficiency in the leg. Diagnosis is based on a clinical history of claudication, which may be atypical, physical examination, noninvasive exercise testing and angiography. Patients with normal ankle pulses and resting ankle/brachial pressure indexes may require extensive exercise testing to document arterial insufficiency. Angiographic demonstration of medial deviation of the popliteal artery is diagnostic of the popliteal artery entrapment syndrome. Arteries that appear normal on routine angiography require biplane angiography with various provocative maneuvers to demonstrate induced arterial stenosis. Using this approach, three additional cases of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome were diagnosed preoperatively and successfully treated with surgery.