Unhealthy alcohol use in the military remains a serious threat to health and military readiness and raises the question of how to improve detection that facilitates diagnosis and treatment. Army active duty soldiers are routinely screened for possible alcohol use disorder in pre- and post-deployment health surveillance surveys. We examined the likelihood of having a follow-up behavioral health visit or receiving an alcohol use disorder diagnosis among soldiers returning from deployments associated with the Afghanistan or Iraq operations in fiscal years 2008-13, based on their post-deployment screening results. After we controlled for demographic and military treatment facility characteristics, military history, and comorbidities, we found that people who screened positive for possible alcohol use disorder were significantly more likely to have such a visit and receive such a diagnosis. Routine post-deployment alcohol screening represents an opportunity for timely intervention by the Military Health System for military members whose results indicate elevated risk for alcohol use disorder.