Cytokines, including chemokines, are small secreted proteins, which specifically effect on the interactions and communications between cells. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced predominantly by activated macrophages and are involved in the upregulation of inflammatory reactions. Dysregulation of cytokines is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we use both before-and-after and case–control studies to search for potential chemokine biomarkers associated with PTSD onset, risk, and resilience as well as stress responses in US military service members deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Blood samples and scores of the PTSD Checklist (PCL) were obtained from soldiers pre- and post deployment (pre, post). Forty chemokines were measured using the Bio-Plex Pro Human Chemokine Panel Assays. The before-and-after analysis showed potential markers (CCL2, CCL15, CCL22, CCL25, CXCL2, and CXCL12) are associated with PTSD onset, and CCL3, CXCL11, and CXCL16 are related to stress response. The case–control study demonstrated that CCL13, CCL20, and CXCL6 were possible PTSD risk markers, and CX3CL1 might be a resilience marker. In addition, CCL11, CCL13, CCL20, and CCL25 were correlated with the PCL scores, indicating their association with PTSD symptom severity. Our data, for the first time, suggest that these dysregulated chemokines may serve as biomarkers for PTSD onset, risk, and resilience as well as stress responses, and may benefit developing approaches not only for PTSD diagnosis but also for PTSD treatment.