Power capability of skeletal muscle to pump blood

L. A. Geddes*, S. F. Badylak

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


This article describes the various ways in which an electrically stimulated, muscle-wrapped pouch can be used to pump blood. The fundamental equations that allow calculation of the output and input power are developed. The output power in watts is 23.5x10-4 (Pm-PDP)F, where Pm is mean arterial pressure and PDP is pouch diastolic pressure (mmHg); F is the pouch output flow (liters/min). The input power in watts is the oxygen consumed by the muscle in millimeters per second multiplied by 20.1. The oxygen consumed is equal to the product of muscle capillary flow and the A-VO2 difference across the muscle. The ratio of output power to input power is the efficiency; typical values range from 7 to 15%. At rest the typical 350 gm heart produces an output power of about 3.5 milliwatts/gram. Skeletal muscle can produce 10-15 milliwatts per gram; however, it is not known how long conditioned or unconditioned muscle can sustain this power level. In addition, it is not known what power level an electrically stimulated skeletal muscle can sustain for a prolonged period; this represents a gap in our knowledge of cardiac assistance using skeletal muscle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-23
Number of pages5
JournalASAIO Transactions
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Power capability of skeletal muscle to pump blood'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this