This issue in the series Current Topics in Military Tropical Medicine focuses on Q Fever. Q fever is a zoonotic infection caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Over 150 confirmed cases have occurred among U.S. military personnel deployed to Iraq since 2007. Acute Q fever is underdiagnosed because of a myriad of possible clinical presentations but typically presents as a flu-like illness. The most common chronic manifestation is endocarditis. Most providers are not familiar with the diagnosis, treatment, or appropriate follow-up of this disease. In order to facilitate the care of patients infected with C. burnetii, the Armed Forces Infectious Diseases Society convened a panel of experts in the field to develop practical guidelines for those caring for infected patients. The recommendations and rationale are reviewed in this article.