Prematurity Does Not Increase Early Childhood Fracture Risk

Kari Wagner, Scott Wagner, Apryl Susi, Gregory Gorman, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate the impact of prematurity on fracture by age 5, controlling for medications and comorbidities of prematurity. Study design: We performed a retrospective cohort study of infants born in Military Treatment Facilities in 2009-2010 with ≥5 years of follow-up care. Gestational age, low birth weight, comorbidities of prematurity (osteopenia, necrotizing enterocolitis, chronic lung disease, and cholestasis) and fractures were identified by International Classification of Disease, 9th Edition, codes. Pharmaceutical records identified treatment with caffeine, diuretics, postnatal corticosteroids, and antacids. Poisson regression analysis determined fracture rate by 5 years of life. Results: There were 65 938 infants born in 2009-2010 who received care in the military health system for ≥5 years, including 3589 born preterm; 165 born at ≤28 6/7 weeks of gestation, 380 born at 29-31 6/7 weeks of gestation, and 3044 born at 32-36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Preterm birth at any gestational age was not associated with fracture rate in adjusted models. The fracture rate was increased with cholestasis, proton pump inhibitor exposure, and male sex. Conclusions: Prematurity was not associated with fracture rate. Neonatal cholestasis and proton pump inhibitor treatment were associated with increased fractures by age 5.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-153
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
StatePublished - Apr 2019


  • cholestasis
  • diuretics
  • fracture
  • metabolic bone disease
  • postnatal corticosteroids
  • preterm birth
  • proton pump inhibitors


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