Presence of Bilateral Rectus Sternalis Muscles in an 88-Year-Old White Female Donor.

Kyle Carr, Bradford Clemens, Craig Reeves, Sarah Fleischer, Ilana Silva, Danielle Cross, Mariah Arave, Guinevere Granite, Gary Wind, Maria Leighton, Elizabeth J. Maynes*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The rectus sternalis muscle is a rare anatomical variant present in the anterior chest wall of humans. This study presents a case of rectus sternalis muscles found in an 88-year-old White female donor during an anatomy course. The embryology and function of this vestigial muscle remain unclear. The muscle has clinical significance in breast augmentation surgery and mammography. In surgery, the muscle can be used to improve the end quality of breast augmentations. In mammography, the rectus sternalis muscle can mimic irregular masses in the breast, leading to misdiagnosis. Advanced imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans can confirm the presence of rectus sternalis muscle. Lack of awareness of this muscle can result in surgical complications and unnecessary procedures. Physicians should be aware of this anatomical variation to ensure accurate diagnosis and appropriate surgical planning.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)102
Number of pages108
JournalJournal of Anatomical Variation and Clinical Case Report
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2023


  • Bilateral rectus sternalis muscles
  • Rectus sternalis muscle
  • Sternalis muscle
  • Chest muscle anatomical variations


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