Objective: While transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 has been reported, estimates of prevalence of resistance in drug-naive populations are incomplete. We investigated the prevalence of genotypic mutations and phenotypic antiretroviral resistance in a cohort of HIV-1 infected U.S. military personnel prior to the institution of antiretroviral therapy. Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods: Plasma was obtained from 114 recently HIV-1 infected subjects enrolled in an epidemiological study. Genotypic resistance was determined by consensus sequencing of a PCR product from the HIV-1 pol gene. Sequences were interpreted by a phenotypic-genotypic correlative database. Resistance phenotypes were determined by a recombinant virus cell culture assay. Results: Genotypic mutations and phenotypic resistance were found at a higher than expected frequency. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was most common, with a prevalence of 15% of 95 subjects by genotype and 26% of 91 subjects by phenotype. Genotypic and phenotypic resistance respectively were found in 4% and 8% of subjects for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and in 10% and 1% for protease inhibitors. One subject harbored virus with resistance to all three drug classes. Conclusions: A substantial frequency of resistance to antiretroviral drugs was identified in a therapy-naive U.S. cohort. In most cases, the genotypic and phenotypic assays yielded similar results, although the genotypic assay could detect some protease inhibitor resistance-associated mutations in the absence of phenotypic resistance. These data suggest the need for optimization of treatment guidelines based on current estimates of the prevalence of drug resistance in HIV-1 seroconverters. (C) 2000 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
- Drug resistance