Prevalence of resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected Hondurans at the beginning of the national antiretroviral therapy program

Bradley Lloyd*, Robert J. O'Connell, Nelson L. Michael, Ricardo Aviles, Elsa Palou, Rosalinda Hernandez, John Cooley, Linda L. Jagodzinski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The Honduran Ministry of Health (MOH) HIV antiretroviral treatment program began widespread treatment in 2003. We investigated the prevalence of antiretroviral genotypic resistance in specimens collected and archived from HIV-1-infected antiretroviral-naive patients presenting to initiate treatment between 1 July, 2002 and 30 June, 2003 in San Pedro Sula and Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Of 416 specimens collected, 336 (80.8%) were successfully genotyped. All genotypes were HIV-1, group M and 99.1% were subtype B. The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations was 7.7% with M184V and T215F/Y present in 6.0% and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations was 7.1%. K103N mutations were present in 3.0% of study specimens. The prevalence of major protease inhibitor mutations was 2.7%. Overall, 9.2% of the specimens harbored clinically significant mutations that predict at least intermediate resistance to the Honduran first-line antiretroviral medications. These mutations were more common in San Pedro Sula (14.0%) than in Tegucigalpa (6.5%, p = 0.02). A significant number of patients presenting to initiate antiretroviral therapy in Honduran MOH clinics harbored HIV-1 isolates resistant to the MOH's first-line regimen and resistance varied by region. Further studies to assess the impact of the Honduran antiretroviral program on genotypic resistance are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)529-535
Number of pages7
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2008
Externally publishedYes


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