Prevention of all-Terrain vehicle injuries: A systematic review from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

Rishi Rattan*, D'Andrea K. Joseph, Christopher J. Dente, Eric N. Klein, Mary K. Kimbrough, Jonathan Nguyen, Jon D. Simmons, Terence O'Keeffe, Marie Crandall

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND Despite increasing usage since their introduction, there exist no evidence-based guidelines on all-Terrain vehicles (ATVs) and injury prevention. While the power and speed of these vehicles has increased over time, advancements in ATV safety have been rare. METHODS A priori questions about ATV injury pattern and the effect of helmet and safety equipment use and legislation mandating use were developed. A query of MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase for all-Terrain vehicle injury was performed. Letters to the editor, case reports, book chapters, and review articles were excluded. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology was used to perform a systematic review and create recommendations. RESULTS Twenty-eight studies were included. Helmet use reduced traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, studies examining whether legislation mandating helmet use reduced TBI had mixed results. When ATV safety legislation was enforced, overall injury rates and mortality decreased. However, enforcement varied widely and lack of enforcement led to decreased compliance with legislation and mixed results. There was not enough evidence to determine the effectiveness of non-helmet-protective equipment. CONCLUSION Helmet use when riding an ATV reduced the rate of TBI. ATV safety legislation, when enforced, also reduced morbidity and mortality. Compliance with laws is often low, however, possibly due to poor enforcement. We recommend helmet use when riding on an ATV to reduce TBI. We conditionally recommend implementing ATV safety legislation as a means to reduce ATV injuries, noting that enforcement must go hand in hand with enactment to ensure compliance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1017-1026
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Injury prevention
  • all-Terrain vehicle
  • brain injury
  • evidence-based medicine
  • guideline


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