The precise time when the viral reservoir is seeded during acute HIV-1 infection remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that the viral reservoir was seeded by day 3 following SIVmac251 infection in rhesus monkeys. Here we report the impact of initiating ART on day 0 (6 h), 1, 2, or 3 following intrarectal SIVmac251 infection in 20 rhesus monkeys (N = 5/group). After 6 months of daily suppressive ART, antiretroviral drugs were discontinued, and viral rebound was monitored. 0% (0 of 5), 20% (1 of 5), 60% (3 of 5), and 100% (5 of 5) of animals that initiated ART on days 0 (6 h), 1, 2, or 3, respectively, showed viral rebound following ART discontinuation and correlated with integrated viral DNA in lymph node CD4+ T cells. These data demonstrate that the viral reservoir is seeded within the first few days of infection and that early ART initiation limits the viral reservoir.