Prevention of SIVmac251 reservoir seeding in rhesus monkeys by early antiretroviral therapy

James B. Whitney*, So Yon Lim, Christa E. Osuna, Jessica L. Kublin, Elsa Chen, Gyeol Yoon, Po Ting Liu, Peter Abbink, Erica N. Borducci, Alison Hill, Mark G. Lewis, Romas Geleziunas, Merlin L. Robb, Nelson L. Michael, Dan H. Barouch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


The precise time when the viral reservoir is seeded during acute HIV-1 infection remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that the viral reservoir was seeded by day 3 following SIVmac251 infection in rhesus monkeys. Here we report the impact of initiating ART on day 0 (6 h), 1, 2, or 3 following intrarectal SIVmac251 infection in 20 rhesus monkeys (N = 5/group). After 6 months of daily suppressive ART, antiretroviral drugs were discontinued, and viral rebound was monitored. 0% (0 of 5), 20% (1 of 5), 60% (3 of 5), and 100% (5 of 5) of animals that initiated ART on days 0 (6 h), 1, 2, or 3, respectively, showed viral rebound following ART discontinuation and correlated with integrated viral DNA in lymph node CD4+ T cells. These data demonstrate that the viral reservoir is seeded within the first few days of infection and that early ART initiation limits the viral reservoir.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5429
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2018
Externally publishedYes


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