Procoagulant in vitro effects of clinical cellular therapeutics in a severely injured trauma population

Mitchell J. George*, Karthik Prabhakara, Naama E. Toledano-Furman, Brijesh S. Gill, Charles E. Wade, Bryan A. Cotton, Andrew P. Cap, Scott D. Olson, Charles S. Cox

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Clinical trials in trauma populations are exploring the use of clinical cellular therapeutics (CCTs) like human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and mononuclear cells (MNC). Recent studies demonstrate a procoagulant effect of these CCTs related to their expression of tissue factor (TF). We sought to examine this relationship in blood from severely injured trauma patients and identify methods to reverse this procoagulant effect. Human MSCs from bone marrow, adipose, and amniotic tissues and freshly isolated bone marrow MNC samples were tested. TF expression and phenotype were quantified using flow cytometry. CCTs were mixed individually with trauma patients' whole blood, assayed with thromboelastography (TEG), and compared with healthy subjects mixed with the same cell sources. Heparin was added to samples at increasing concentrations until TEG parameters normalized. Clotting time or R time in TEG decreased relative to the TF expression of the CCT treatment in a logarithmic fashion for trauma patients and healthy subjects. Nonlinear regression curves were significantly different with healthy subjects demonstrating greater relative decreases in TEG clotting time. In vitro coadministration of heparin normalized the procoagulant effect and required dose escalation based on TF expression. TF expression in human MSC and MNC has a procoagulant effect in blood from trauma patients and healthy subjects. The procoagulant effect is lower in trauma patients possibly because their clotting time is already accelerated. The procoagulant effect due to MSC/MNC TF expression could be useful in the bleeding trauma patient; however, it may emerge as a safety release criterion due to thrombotic risk. The TF procoagulant effect is reversible with heparin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)491-498
Number of pages8
JournalStem Cells Translational Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • adipose stem cells
  • adult hematopoietic stem cells
  • adult stem cells
  • bone marrow stromal cells
  • flow cytometry
  • heparin
  • mesenchymal stem cells
  • stem cells


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