Program evaluation models and related theories: AMEE Guide No. 67

Ann W. Frye*, Paul A. Hemmer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

279 Scopus citations


This Guide reviews theories of science that have influenced the development of common educational evaluation models. Educators can be more confident when choosing an appropriate evaluation model if they first consider the model's theoretical basis against their program's complexity and their own evaluation needs. Reductionism, system theory, and (most recently) complexity theory have inspired the development of models commonly applied in evaluation studies today. This Guide describes experimental and quasi-experimental models, Kirkpatrick's four-level model, the Logic Model, and the CIPP (Context/Input/Process/Product) model in the context of the theories that influenced their development and that limit or support their ability to do what educators need. The goal of this Guide is for educators to become more competent and confident in being able to design educational program evaluations that support intentional program improvement while adequately documenting or describing the changes and outcomesintended and unintendedassociated with their programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e288-e299
JournalMedical Teacher
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2012
Externally publishedYes


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