Emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and waning immunity call for next-generation vaccine strategies. Here, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two SARSCoV-2 vaccines targeting the WA1/2020 spike protein, Ad26.COV2.S (Ad26) and Spike ferritin Nanoparticle (SpFN), in nonhuman primates, delivered as either a homologous (SpFN/SpFN and Ad26/Ad26) or heterologous (Ad26/SpFN) prime-boost regimen. The Ad26/SpFN regimen elicited the highest CD4 T cell and memory B cell responses, the SpFN/SpFN regimen generated the highest binding and neutralizing antibody responses, and the Ad26/Ad26 regimen generated the most robust CD8 T cell responses. Despite these differences, protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 challenge was similar for all three regimens. After challenge, all vaccinated monkeys showed significantly reduced peak and day 4 viral loads in both bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal swabs as compared with sham animals. The efficacy conferred by these three immunologically distinct vaccine regimens suggests that both humoral and cellular immunity contribute to protection against SARSCoV-2 Omicron challenge.