Protein microarray detection strategies: Focus on direct detection technologies

Virginia Espina*, Elisa C. Woodhouse, Julia Wulfkuhle, Heather D. Asmussen, Emanuel F. Petricoin, Lance A. Liotta

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

175 Scopus citations


Protein microarrays are being utilized for functional proteomic analysis, providing information not obtainable by gene arrays. Microarray technology is applicable for studying protein-protein, protein-ligand, kinase activity and posttranslational modifications of proteins. A precise and sensitive protein microarray, the direct detection or reverse-phase microarray, has been applied to ongoing clinical trials at the National Cancer Institute for studying phosphorylation events in EGF-receptor-mediated cell signaling pathways. The variety of microarray applications allows for multiple, creative microarray designs and detection strategies. Herein, we discuss detection strategies and challenges for protein microarray technology, focusing on direct detection of protein microarrays.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-133
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Immunological Methods
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jul 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Catalyzed reporter deposition
  • Chromogens
  • Fluorescence
  • Molecular profiling
  • Protein microarray


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