Proteomic analysis of eccrine sweat: Implications for the discovery of schizophrenia biomarker proteins

Michelle M. Raiszadeh*, Mark M. Ross, Paul S. Russo, Mary Ann Schaepper, Weidong Zhou, Jianghong Deng, Daniel Ng, April Dickson, Cindy Dickson, Monica Strom, Carolina Osorio, Thomas Soeprono, Julia D. Wulfkuhle, Emanuel F. Petricoin, Lance A. Liotta, Wolff M. Kirsch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

117 Scopus citations


Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) proteomics analyses were performed on eccrine sweat of healthy controls, and the results were compared with those from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ). This is the first large scale study of the sweat proteome. First, we performed LC-MS/MS on pooled SZ samples and pooled control samples for global proteomics analysis. Results revealed a high abundance of diverse proteins and peptides in eccrine sweat. Most of the proteins identified from sweat samples were found to be different than the most abundant proteins from serum, which indicates that eccrine sweat is not simply a plasma transudate and may thereby be a source of unique disease-associated biomolecules. A second independent set of patient and control sweat samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and spectral counting to determine qualitative protein differential abundances between the control and disease groups. Differential abundances of selected proteins, initially determined by spectral counting, were verified by MRM-MS analyses. Seventeen proteins showed a differential abundance of approximately 2-fold or greater between the SZ pooled sample and the control pooled sample. This study demonstrates the utility of LC-MS/MS and MRM-MS as a viable strategy for the discovery and verification of potential sweat protein disease biomarkers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2127-2139
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Proteome Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - 6 Apr 2012
Externally publishedYes


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