Provider uptake of extragenital screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia in a cohort of Air Force members with incident HIV diagnosis

Joseph Yabes*, Christian C. Lamb, Shilpa Hakre, Paul T. Scott, Walter Mika, Jason F. Okulicz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhea (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is higher at extragenital anatomic sites among men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV infection. Although national guidelines recommend that all MSM with HIV infection undergo screening for extragenital sexually transmitted infections (EG-STIs), uptake is low in many primary care settings. We evaluated EG-STI screening by primary care providers (PCPs) for US Air Force (USAF) members with incident HIV infection. All USAF members with incident HIV infection who received initial HIV specialty care with Infectious Disease (ID) providers at Brooke Army Medical Center from 2016 to 2018 (n=98) were included. A retrospective chart review was conducted to evaluate STI screening performed by PCPs within 1 week of HIV diagnosis compared to screening at entry into ID care. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and behavioral risk data were collected. STI screening included GC/CT EG-STIs, urethral GC/CT, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C. Patients were predominantly male (98%) with a median age of 26 (IQR 23, 32) years at HIV diagnosis. A previous history of STIs was reported in 53 (54%) patients and the majority of males self-identified as MSM (66%) or bisexual (23%). The median time from HIV diagnosis to ID evaluation was 26 days (IQR 9, 33). PCPs performed any STI screening in 61 (62%) patients. EG-STI screening was conducted in 3 (3%) patients overall and in (3%) MSM/bisexuals. A total of 31 (32%) patients had missed STIs; the majority due to EG-STIs of the rectum (59%) and pharynx (19%). All EG-STIs would have been missed by urethral GC/CT screening alone. EG-STI screening uptake was low among PCPs evaluating USAF members with incident HIV infection. Underutilization of EG-STI screening can result in missed infections and forward transmission of GC/CT. Barriers to low uptake need to be explored.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E31209
Issue number42
StatePublished - 21 Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • chlamydia
  • gonorrhea
  • human immunodeficiency virus
  • military
  • public health
  • sexually transmitted infections


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