Pseudofracture: An acute peripheral tissue trauma model

Sophie S. Darwiche, Philipp Kobbe, Roman Pfeifer, Lauryn Kohut, Hans Christoph Pape, Timothy Billiar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

Following trauma there is an early hyper-reactive inflammatory response that can lead to multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality in trauma patients; this response is often accompanied by a delayed immunosuppression that adds the clinical complications of infection and can also increase mortality. Many studies have begun to assess these changes in the reactivity of the immune system following trauma. Immunologic studies are greatly supported through the wide variety of transgenic and knockout mice available for in vivo modeling; these strains aid in detailed investigations to assess the molecular pathways involved in the immunologic responses. The challenge in experimental murine trauma modeling is long term investigation, as fracture fixation techniques in mice, can be complex and not easily reproducible. This pseudofracture model, an easily reproduced trauma model, overcomes these difficulties by immunologically mimicking an extremity fracture environment, while allowing freedom of movement in the animals and long term survival without the continual, prolonged use of anaesthesia. The intent is to recreate the features of long bone fracture; injured muscle and soft tissue are exposed to damaged bone and bone marrow without breaking the native bone. The pseudofracture model consists of two parts: a bilateral muscle crush injury to the hindlimbs, followed by injection of a bone solution into these injured muscles. The bone solution is prepared by harvesting the long bones from both hindlimbs of an age- and weight-matched syngeneic donor. These bones are then crushed and resuspended in phosphate buffered saline to create the bone solution. Bilateral femur fracture is a commonly used and well-established model of extremity trauma, and was the comparative model during the development of the pseudofracture model. Among the variety of available fracture models, we chose to use a closed method of fracture with soft tissue injury as our comparison to the pseudofracture, as we wanted a sterile yet proportionally severe peripheral tissue trauma model. Hemorrhagic shock is a common finding in the setting of severe trauma, and the global hypoperfusion adds a very relevant element to a trauma model. The pseudofracture model can be easily combined with a hemorrhagic shock model for a multiple trauma model of high severity.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2074
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number50
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2011
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Extremity
  • Immune response
  • Immunosuppression
  • Inflammation
  • Issue 50
  • Medicine
  • Mouse
  • Musculoskeletal
  • Trauma

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