Psychometric validation of the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI) among U.S. transgender men

Jason M. Nagata*, Emilio J. Compte, F. Hunter McGuire, Jason M. Lavender, Stuart B. Murray, Tiffany A. Brown, Matthew R. Capriotti, Annesa Flentje, Micah E. Lubensky, Juno Obedin-Maliver, Mitchell R. Lunn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is characterized by a pervasive belief or fear of insufficient muscularity and an elevated drive for muscularity, representing the pathological and extreme pursuit of muscularity. Psychometric properties of one of the most widely used measures of MD symptoms—the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI)—have yet to be evaluated in transgender men despite emerging evidence suggesting differential risk for MD symptoms in this population. In this study, we assessed the psychometric properties of the MDDI in a sample of 330 transgender men ages 18–67 years who participated in a large-scale national longitudinal cohort study of sexual and gender minority adults in the U.S. Using a two-step, split-sample approach, an initial exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure and a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis of a re-specified three-factor model demonstrated good overall fit (χ2/df = 1.84, CFI =0.94, TLI =0.92, RMSEA =0.07 [90% CI =0.05,.09], SRMR =0.08). Moreover, results supported the internal consistency and convergent validity of the MDDI subscales in transgender men. Findings inform the use of the MDDI among transgender men and provide a foundation to support further work on the MDDI and MD symptoms among gender minority populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-49
Number of pages7
JournalBody Image
StatePublished - Sep 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Assessment
  • Gender minority
  • Muscle dysmorphia
  • Muscle dysmorphic disorder inventory
  • Transgender


Dive into the research topics of 'Psychometric validation of the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI) among U.S. transgender men'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this