At present, there are no set guidelines establishing cumulative limits for blast exposure numbers and intensities in military personnel, in combat or training operations. The objective of the current study was to define lung injury, pathology, and associated behavioral changes from primary repeated blast lung injury under appropriate exposure conditions and combinations (i.e. blast overpressure (BOP) intensity and exposure frequency) using an advanced blast simulator. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to BOP frontally and laterally at a pressure range of ~ 8.5–19 psi, for up to 30 daily exposures. The extent of lung injury was identified at 24 h following BOP by assessing the extent of surface hemorrhage/contusion, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, and behavioral deficits with open field activity. Lung injury was mathematically modeled to define the military standard 1% lung injury threshold. Significant levels of histiocytosis and inflammation were observed in pressures ≥ 10 psi and orientation effects were observed at pressures ≥ 13 psi. Experimental data demonstrated ~ 8.5 psi is the threshold for hemorrhage/contusion, up to 30 exposures. Modeling the data predicted injury risk up to 50 exposures with intensity thresholds at 8 psi for front exposure and 6psi for side exposures, which needs to be validated further.