Quantitative review of antibody response to inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines

Jessica C. Seidman*, Stephanie A. Richard, Cécile Viboud, Mark A. Miller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Background Seasonal influenza epidemics are associated with significant morbidity and mortality each year, particularly amongst young children and the elderly. Seasonal influenza vaccines have been available for decades, yet influenza remains a major public health threat in the US, sparking interest in studies evaluating the effectiveness of vaccination. Objectives We sought to identify determinants of serological responses to inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines including number of doses, adjuvant, and subject characteristics. Methods We reviewed 60 articles published between 1987 and 2006. We used weighted multiple logistic regression and random-effects models to evaluate how seroconversion and seroprotection rates varied with host and vaccine factors. Results Both children and seniors tended to have poorer immune responses compared to adults whereas use of adjuvant and a second vaccine dose tended to improve immune response. Pre-vaccination serological status had a large impact on the immune response to vaccination. We found substantial heterogeneity among studies, even with similar population settings and vaccination regimen. Conclusions Future studies should stratify their results by pre-vaccination serological status in an effort to produce more precise summary estimates of vaccine response. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-62
Number of pages11
JournalInfluenza and other Respiratory Viruses
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • Antibody response
  • Immunogenicity
  • Influenza
  • Vaccine


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