The efficacy of molecular targeted therapy depends on expression and enzymatic activity of the target molecules. As radiotherapy modulates gene expression and protein phosphorylation dependent on dose and fractionation, we analyzed the long-term effects of irradiation on the post-radiation efficacy of molecular targeted drugs. We irradiated prostate cancer cells either with a single dose (SD) of 10 Gy x-ray or a multifractionated (MF) regimen with 10 fractions of 1 Gy. Whole genome arrays and reverse phase protein microarrays were used to determine gene expression and protein phosphorylation. Additionally, we evaluated radiation-induced pathway activation with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. To measure cell survival and sensitivity to clinically used molecular targeted drugs, we performed colony formation assays. We found increased activation of several pathways regulating important cell functions such as cell migration and cell survival at 24 h after MF irradiation or at 2 months after SD irradiation. Further, cells which survived a SD of 10 Gy showed a long-term upregulation and increased activity of multiple molecular targets including AKT, IGF-1R, VEGFR2, or MET, while HDAC expression was decreased. In line with this, 10 Gy SD cells were more sensitive to target inhibition with Capivasertib or Ipatasertib (AKTi), BMS-754807 (IGF-1Ri), or Foretinib (VEGFR2/METi), but less sensitive to Panobinostat or Vorinostat (HDACi). In summary, understanding the molecular short- and long-term changes after irradiation can aid in optimizing the efficacy of multimodal radiation oncology in combination with post-irradiation molecularly-targeted drug treatment and improving the outcome of prostate cancer patients.