Ranking Pictorial Cues in Simulated Landing Flares

Danny Benbassat*, Abigail Konopasky, Ting Dong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Two-dimensional pictorial cues provide depth perception information that help pilots initiate the landing flare 10–20 ft from the ground. Although prior studies established the importance of three specific cues, they failed to rank-order their importance. This exploratory paper presents two studies, with different methodologies, that examine the effect of these pictorial cues on depth perception. In both studies, participants experienced simulated scenarios and attempted to initiate the landing flare 10–20 ft above ground level. Study 1 included 121 and Study 2 included 141, naïve participants with no prior flight experience. Combined, the findings suggest that flight instructors, training literature, and airport architects should emphasize the runway above all other pictorial cues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-32
Number of pages10
JournalAviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • depth perception
  • general aviation
  • landing flare
  • leveloff
  • monocular cues
  • pictorial cues
  • roundout


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