U.S. combat casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan continue to develop infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. This study assesses the infection control database and clinical microbiology antibiograms at a single site from 2005 to 2007, a period when all Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) casualties admitted to the facility underwent initial isolation and screening for MDR pathogens. During this 3-year period, there were 2,242 OIF/OEF admissions: 560 in 2005, 724 in 2006, and 958 in 2007. The most commonly recovered pathogens from OIF/OEF admission screening cultures were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter. The yearly nosocomial infection rate of these three pathogens among OIF/OEF" admissions ranged between 2 and 4%. There were remarkable changes in resistance profiles for Acinetobacter, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus over time. Despite aggressive infection control procedures, there is continued nosocomial transmission within the facility and increasing antimicrobial resistance in some pathogens. Novel techniques are needed to control the impact of MDR bacteria in medical facilities.