The Long Term Career Outcome Study is a central program of research in the Center for Health Professions Education at the Uniformed Services University. The overarching goal of Long Term Career Outcome Study is to perform evidence-based evaluations before, during, and after medical school, and as such, it represents a form of educational epidemiology. In this essay, we highlighted the findings of the investigations published in this special issue. These investigations span from "before"medical school matriculation to "during"medical school and "after"learners go on to graduate training and practice. Furthermore, we discuss how this scholarship might shed light on improving the educational practices at the Uniformed Services University and potentially elsewhere. We hope that this work demonstrates how research can enhance medical education processes and connect research, policy, and practice.