Introduction: Despite increases in the number of female matriculants in medical school, civilian data demonstrate that women still struggle to reach parity in attainment of leadership positions. In military medicine, we have seen a major increase in the number of women graduating from the USU. Yet, we still know little about the representation of female military physicians in leadership positions. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between gender and academic and military achievement among USU School of Medicine graduates. Methods: Utilizing the USU alumni survey sent to graduates from the classes of 1980 to 2017, items of interest, such as highest military rank, leadership positions held, academic rank, and time in service, were used to evaluate the relationship between gender and academic and military achievement. Contingency table statistical analysis was conducted to compare the gender distribution on the survey items of interest. Results: Pairwise comparison demonstrated significant differences between gender in the O-4 (P =. 003) and O-6 (P =. 0002) groups, with females having a higher-than-expected number of O-4 officers and males having a higher-than-expected number of O-6 officers. These differences persisted in a subsample analysis that excluded those who separated from active duty prior to 20 years of service. There was a significant association between gender and holding the position of commanding officer (χ2(1) = 6.61, P <. 05) with fewer females than expected. In addition, there was a significant association between gender and the highest academic rank achieved (χ2(3) = 9.48, P < 0.05) with lower-than-expected number of females reaching the level of full professor, in contrast to males who exceed the expected number. Conclusions: This study suggests that female graduates of USU School of Medicine have not achieved promotion to the highest levels of rank, military, or academic leadership at the projected rate. Efforts to explore what barriers may impact military medicine's desire to have more equal representation of women in higher ranks and positions should be undertaken with specific attention to what drives retention versus separation of medical officers and if systematic changes are needed to help promote equity for women in military medicine.