Background. Registry analyses and single-center studies have demonstrated that hypertension significantly increases the risk for chronic graft loss. The graft itself may contribute to posttransplant hypertension, and intragraft vasoactive hormones therefore, may be dysregulated in posttransplant hypertension. Methods. We used the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to assess the intragraft regulation of renin- angiotensin system transcripts in biopsy samples from 42 stable renal transplant patients with posttransplant hypertension. We also examined mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), select cytokines, and metalloproteinase transcripts in biopsy tissue. Polymerase chain reaction products were quantitated using high performance liquid chromatography and normalized to β-actin mRNA expression. Serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate or creatinine clearance and tubular atrophy on biopsy were concurrently assessed. Results. Renin and select Th1 cytokine mRNA expression correlated with blood pressure. Type 1 angiotensin II receptor mRNA expression significantly correlated with glomerular filtration rate or creatinine clearance (P=0.034) and inversely correlated with Th1 cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-1 mRNA expression (P≤0.013 for each). Type 1 angiotensin II receptor mRNA also approached a significant inverse correlation with TGF-β mRNA expression (P=0.09). Conversely, angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression directly correlated with Th1 cytokine (P≤0.008 for each) and TGF- β mRNA expression (P=0.006). Type 1 angiotensin II receptor mRNA expression also correlated with matrix metalloproteinase-1 promoter region, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 mRNA expression. Notably, matrix metalloproteinase-1 promoter region, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 inversely correlated with TGF-β mRNA expression (P≤0.0027 for each). Type 1 angiotensin II receptor mRNA expression at biopsy directly correlated with glomerular filtration rate at 2 year's follow-up. However, angiotensin- converting enzyme mRNA expression at biopsy inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate at 2 year's follow-up. Conclusions. These data suggest that allograft-level RAS gene expression may be predictive of future graft function in the setting of diastolic hypertension.